Giuliano di Baccio d'Agnolo Baglioni
architect, sculptor, and woodworker; b. 1491; d. 1555.
The four sons of Baccio d' Agnolo continued his work. Of these, the two oldest, Giuliano and Domenico, attained eminence as architects. Vasari employed Giuliano to execute work from his designs, and attributes many buildings to him. For Baldassare Turini he built the Capella Turini in the Cathedral of Pescia (1540), which was intended to contain a picture by Raphael. He also built the Casetta Campana at Montughi, near Florence, the Palazzo Campana at Colle in Val d' Elsa, and the Palazzo Grifoni at San Miniato al Tedesco (between Florence and Pisa).
Charles Baillard (Baillart, Billart)
Baillard is mentioned in the Comptes as Maistre Maçon de Monseigneur le Connetable, Anne de Montmorency (d. 1567). He was one of the inspectors of the contracts made by Gilles le Breton at Fontainebleau (1540), and by Guillaume Guillain at La Muette (1548). Palustre supposes that he was employed between 1531 and 1550 by Montmorency to design and build those portions of the Château of Ecouen which were constructed before the time of Jean Bullant. He was probably connected with the family of Biard.
Jean Bologne (Boulogne) (Giovanni Bologna. Fiammingo)
sculptor and architect; b. 1524; d. August 13, 1608.
Jean was the son of a sculptor (entailleur) of Douai in French Flanders. Bologne is his family name, and has no connection with the city of Bologna in Italy. In 1540 he entered the atelier of the sculptor Jacques Dubroeucq at Antwerp. He spent several years in Rome, and about 1553 was invited to settle in Florence by Bernardo Vecchietti, at whose villa, Il Riposo, he lived for several years. The Grand Duke Francesco I de' Medici became his principal patron. April 28, 1563, Bologne was commissioned by Pius IV (Pope 1559-1565) to make the famous fountain of Neptune at Bologna (finished 1567). His Flying Mercury, made in 1574, was first placed in the Acciajuoli gardens in Florence, and it was transferred to the Villa Medici, Rome, before 1598. When the Villa Medici was sold to the French government about 1769 the statue was brought back to Florence. About 1577-1581 Bologne made the colossal statue called L'Appenino (25 metres high) at the villa of Pratolino near Florence. He was also employed in the decoration of the Boboli gardens, Florence, his most important works there being the fountain of the Isoletto and the fountain of the Grotticella. There is a charming fountain by him at the villa of Petraia, near Florence. His equestrian statue of Cosimo I was placed in the Piazza della Signoria, Florence, in 1594. His group of Hercules and the centaur in the Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence, was made between 1594 and 1599. In 1596 he began the three bronze doors of the façade of the cathedral of Pisa to replace those by Bonano da Pisa which had been destroyed by fire October 24, 1595. He was assisted by Pierre Franqueville, his favourite bronze-caster, Fra Domenico Portigiani, and others. The fine statue of S. Luke at Or S. Michele, Florence, dates from 1602. In 1604 he began the equestrian statue of Henri IV, which, completed by Pietro Tacca, was placed in position at the Pont Neuf, Paris, August 23, 1614 (destroyed August 11, 1792). His figurines and smaller works are especially fine, among the best being the crucifix in the new sacristy of S. Lorenzo, Florence.
Jean Cousin (Jehan)
painter, glass painter, and sculptor; b. 1500 or 1501 (at Soucy near Sens, Yonne, France); d. 1589.
Cousin was surveyor, painter, engraver, illustrator, sculptor, architect, and writer. The only notice of him in the royal accounts is an entry concerning employment as sculptor (imagier) at Fontainebleau about 1540-1550. His splendid statue of Admiral Chabot is in the Louvre. Cousin was above all a glass painter. The window of the Tiburtine Sibyl in the cathedral of Sens (injured by a cannon-ball at the siege of Sens in 1814) is his work, and the rose window of the Paradise in the same church is doubtless also by him. The great window of the Martyrdom of S. Lawrence at the church of S. Gervais (Paris), glass in the church of S. Étienne-du-Mont (Paris), and a fine head at the Musée des Arts décoratifs (Paris) are ascribed to Cousin. Cousin made five windows en grisaille at the château of Anet which have been destroyed. He published his Livre de Perspective in 1560 (Paris, folio), and his Livre de Portraicture in 1511 (Paris, 4to).
painter, glass painter, and architect; b. 1503; d. 1561.
He painted the glass of the palace and of the palace church at Innsbruck in the Tyrol in 1540, and was later commissioned to paint eighteen windows for the Rathaus at Ensisheim in Alsace. He surveyed the boundary between Bavaria and the Tyrol, and made a relief map of northern Tyrol.
Nicholson was much employed in England in the sixteenth century. He was one of four who contracted to paint eighteen windows in the upper story of King's College Chapel, Cambridge, in the reign of Henry VIII.
architect; b. about 1518; d. August, 1580.
Palladio is supposed to have been the son of a carpenter named Pietro, employed by the scholar and poet, Gian Giorgio Trissino. He became the protégé of Trissino, who gave him the name Palladio (from Pallas, goddess of wisdom), and educated him as an architect. Palladio's first work was the Palazzo Godi at Lonedo in 1540. He visited Rome first with Trissino in 1541, and again in 1544. In 1545 he presented four designs for the reconstruction of the basilica of Vicenza. Work was begun from his model in 1549. Palladio built the Palazzo Pisani at Bagnolo, near Vicenza; the Palazzo Porto, now Colleoni, in Vicenza, 1552; the Palazzo Thiene (Banca popolare), Vicenza, 1556, dated; the Palazzo Foscari on the Brenta before 1561; the Palazzo Pisani, near Padua, 1565; the famous Palazzo Chiericati, Vicenza, before 1567; the Palazzo Valmarana, Vicenza, after 1566; and the Palazzo Porto Barbarano, Vicenza, after 1570. The famous villa, called the Rotonda, which he built for Paolo Almerico, near Vicenza, was begun before 1570 and finished about 1591. The façade of the church of S. Francesco alia Vigna (Venice) was designed by him in 1562. In 1561 he built the cloister of the Convento della Carità, (now the Accademia, Venice), on the plan of a Roman house. It was nearly destroyed by fire in 1650. Palladio built the refectory of the church of S. Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, about 1560, and in 1565 the church itself with its fine façade. In 1570 he designed the cloister of the same building. He began the church of the Redentore, Venice, in 1576 (finished 1592). In the third book of his Architettura is given a splendid design for a bridge supposed to have been intended for the Rialto, Venice. In 1571 the loggia of the Piazza Maggiore, Vicenza, was begun from his designs. In February, 1580, he began the celebrated Teatro Olimpico, which was finished after his death by his son Silla and Vincenzo Scamozzi. Palladio's treatise on architecture was first published complete, in Venice, in 1570, with the title I quattro Libri dell' Architettura. Many of his drawings were published by Lord Burlington in 1730, and those on the Roman baths by Bertotti Scamozzi. A collection of his buildings was published by Bertotti Scamozzi in 1776.
Francisco de Villalpando
sculptor and architect.
About 1540, in association with others, he executed much of the sculpture of the great chapel and choir of the cathedral of Toledo. The pulpits in gilded bronze in this cathedral are also ascribed to him.
Jacopo Sansovino, Loggetta (Venice: 1540-).