23 September: Flavia Julia Helena born at Drepanum, Bithynia (Herkes, Turkey).


Persecution of the Christians under emperor Decius. Earliest date associated with the martyrdom of Saint Agnes.

c. 270

Helena meets and begins co-habitation with Roman officier Constantius Chlorus, who later became Roman Emperor Constantius I.

c. 272

C. Flavius Valerius Claudius Constantinus (Constantine the Great) born at Naissus, Moesia Superior (Nis, Serbia), son of Constantius Chlorus and Helenas.


Constantius Chlorus is praeses (provincial governor) of Dalmatia.


1 March: Establishment of the First Tetrarchy: Augustus Diocletian in Nicomedia; Augustus Maximian in Milan; Caesar Galerius in Thessalonike; Caesar Constantius in Trier.

Constantius separates from Helena and in turn marries Theodora, (step)daughter of Augustus Maximian.

Constantine remains at the court of Diocletian at Nicomedia, while the whereabouts of Helena are uncertain.

c. 300

Eusebius sees Constantine for the first time in Palestine as Constantine and Diocletian make their way toward Egypt to suppress a rebellion.


The Great Presecution of the Christians under Diocletian

23 February: The Christian Church in Nicomedia is torn down.


1 May: Diocletian and Maximian retire as emperors and the Second Tetrarchy is established: Augustus Galerius (the Balkens and Aisa Minor); Augustus Constantius (Gaul, Britian and Spain); Caesar Maximinus Daia (the eastern provinces); Caesar Severus (Italy, Pannonia and Africa).

Flavius Julius Crispus born somewhere in the East, the son of Constantine and his mistress Minervina.


Constantine joins his father Constantius in the west, and assists him in a campaign against the Picts (in modern-day Scotland)

25 July: Constantius dies at Eburacum (York); Constantine is immediately proclaimed Augustus by his soldiers.

Galerius offers a compromise Third Tetrarchy: Severus as Augustus and Constantine as Caesar.

Constantine takes up principle residence at Trier (till 312); Helena may have joined Constantine's household at this point.

28 October: The Senate and the Praetorian Guard in Rome proclaim Maxentius (son of former Augustus Maximian) as emperor princeps. Maximian comes out of retirement to support his son.


Augustus Severus surrenders to Maxentius at Ravenna and is forced to commit suicide.

31 March: Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of Maximian and sister of Maxentius, at Trier. Minervina, Constantine's mistress and mother of his first son Crispus, is put aside.

Maximian falls out with his son Maxentius and sides with Constantine.

27 October: Maxentius claims the rank of Augustus.


11 November: Diocletian (briefly emerging from retirement), Maximian and Galerius meet at Carnuntum (near Vienna) to resolve the embroiled tetrarchy: Diocletian returns to retirement rather than reclaim power as senior Augustus; Maximian is to also return to retirement; Maxentius is declared a usurper; Galerius appoints a new Augustus, Licinius, and offers Constantine and Maximinus Daia the title filius Augustii.


Mausoleum of Romulus, Villa of Maxentius, Circus of Maxentius


Maximian, while still finding refuge within Constantine's household, seizes the treasury at Arles and proclaims himself Augustus once more. Constantine quickly suppresses Maximian's last attempt at gaining power, and ultimately Maximian surrenders at Massilia (Marseilles) where he is forced to commit suicide.


April: Galerius concedes his presecution of the Christians a failure; Maximinus Daia continues Christian presecution within his territories.

Galerius dies of disease in Nicomedia. Constantine, Maxentius, Licinius and Maximinus Daia remain in power, all as Augusti.

Maxentius (in Rome) vows to avenge his father's death at Constantine's hand; a subservient Roman Senate deifies Maxentius.

later 311 or early 312: Constantine betroths his half-sister Constantia to Lincinius Augustus, which threatens Maxentius even further.


7 January: Saint Lucian of Antioch suffers martydom at Nicomedia under the persecution of Maximinus Daia, and receives subsequent burial at Drepanum.

Summer: Constantine begins his campaign against Maxentius with a military force of 40,000 men. The cities of Segusio (Susa), Augusta Taurinorum (Turin), Milan and Verona presented Constantine little resistance on his way to Rome, and subsequently all of northern Italy was on his side.

27 October at night: A dream evokes Constantine to place a sign of Christ upon the shields of his soilders before they enter battle.

28 October: Maxentius offers battle with Constantine outside the gates of Rome near the Milvian Bridge. Maxentius suffers total defeat, himself drowning in the Tiber. Henceforth, Constantine believes in the power of the Christian God.

29 October: Constantine victoriously enters Rome.

The Roman Senate decrees Constantine senior Augustus, which makes him undisputed master of the western Empire.

end of 312: Constantine founds the Lateran basilica, subsequently called after him the Basilica Constantiniana, has it decorated and endows it with furnishings and landed property.

Helena takes up residence within the palatium Sessorianum at Rome.


February: Constantine and Licinius meet in Milan where the two emperors agree on a common religious policy whereby Licinius subsequently grants the Christians within the eastern Empire the same toleration already granted Christian's throughout the western Empire, including the restitution of confiscated Christian property -- the so-called Edict of Milan. Licinius and Constantia are married.

30 April: Licinius defeats Maximinus Daia near Adianople (in Thrace). Licinius is now sole ruler in the eastern Empire, while Constantine is sole ruler in the western Empire.

2 October: A synod in Rome regarding the Donatist controversy convenes within the Lateran Palace, an imperial estate since the time of Nero, which Constantine gave to Pope Miltiades as a (papal) residence. This is also the earliest possible date for the initial construction of the Basilica Constantiniana (later the Basilica of Saint Giovanni in Laterano). The Latern Palace was next to the fundus Laurentus, extensive imperial property mostly southeast of the Aurelian Wall which became the estate of Helena sometime after 312.


29 October to 30 December: Constantine is known to have resided in Trier.


July: Valerius Licinianus Licinius is born, the son of Licinius Augustus and Constantia (the half-sister of Constantine).

18 or 21 July: Constantine arrives in Rome to mark the beginning of his decennalia; the Arch of Constantine is complete and dedicated.

27 September: Constantine leaves Rome and returns to Gaul.


7 August: Constantine (II) is born, first son of Constantine and Fausta.

8 October: The armies of Constantine and Licinius meet in battle at Cilalae in Pannonia - the bellum Cibalense. Licinius suffers heavy casualties and retreats with his wife Constantia and son Licinius.


January: The second battle between Constantine and Licinius on the campus Ardiensis in Thrace; there is no clear victory for either side.

1 March: Constantine announces the appointment of three Caesars: Crispus (son of Constantine and Minervina), Constantine (II) (son of Constantine and Fausta), and the younger Licinius (son of Licinius and Constantia).

7 August: Constantius (II) is born, second son of Constantine and Fausta.

Constantine and Licinius remain co-Augusti, however their accord continues to break down beyond this point.


Constantine extends the judicial authority of bishops.


Sometime between 313 and 319, construction of the Basilica Apostolorum, the Basilica of Saint Lawrence, the Basilica of Saint Peter (in Vaticano), and the Basilica of Saints Marcellinus and Peter begins. The mausoleum planned for Constantine, but subsequently housing the tomb of Helena, is attached to the Basilica of Saints Marcellinus and Peter, which is within the fundus Laurentus, Helena's Roman estate.


Constantine removes the sanctions imposed upon celibates by Augustus Caesar.

Earliest date of the birth of Constans, third son of Constantine and Fausta.


Constantine, as he campaigns against invading Goths in the Balkans, causes a casus belli by violating Licinius' territiory.


3 July: Constantine defeats Licinius at Adrianople.

18 September: Constantine defeats Licinius a second time at Chrysopolis; Licinius survives and retreats to Nicomedia and surrenders soon thereafter. Constantine enters Nicomedia in triumph.

Constantine becomes sole Augustus of the Roman Empire.

Autumn: Constantine issues a letter to all his provincials whereby Christianity becomes the favored religion of the whole empire.

8 November: Fausta and Helena are granted the rank of Augusta.


Spring: Constantine orders Licinius (now a private citizen in Thessalonike) put to death. The younger Licinius is also put to death most likely at this time as well.

20 May - 26 July: Constantine convokes the first general council of the Christian Church -- Council of Nicaea.

25 July 325 - 25 July 326: The celebration of Constantine's vicennalia, the twentith anniversary of Constantine's reign as an Augustus.

14 September: Helena discovers the Holy Cross.

Construction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem), the Church of the Nativity (Bethlehem), and the Church on the Mount of Olive (site of the Ascension in Jerusalem) begins.


Constantine's execution of his son Crispus.

25 July: Helena dies at Naples. She is subsequently buried in Rome within the mausoleum attached to the basilica of Saints Marcellinus and Peter.

25 July: Fausta commits suicide at Rome.

3 August: Constantine leaves Rome and never returns.

Eutropia converts one of the halls in Helena's palace at Rome (the Palatium Sessorianum) into a chapel. This chapel later becomes Santa Croce in Gerusalemme.


Constantine reconvens the Council of Nicaea (at Nicomedia).

The Imperial quarters at Trier demolished; then Trier's cathedral was built on the remains.


12 November: death of Eutropia.


11 May: Dedication of Constantinople.


Constantine betroths his daughter Constantina to his nephew Hannibalianus; Constantina is granted the rank of Augusta.

13 September: Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem dedicated.


after Easter (3 April): Bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia baptizes Constantine.

22 May, Pentecost: Constantine dies at Nicomedia.

late summer: Hannibalianus, nephew and son-in-law of Constantine and husband of Constantina is put to death during the purges of the imperial family after the death of Constantine.

9 September: Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans assume to title of Augustus.


Constantina dies at Caeni Gallicani in Bithynia; she is subsequently buried in the mausoleum next to the basilica of Saint Agnes.



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