Jacques Ange Gabriel
architect; b. October 24, 1698; d. January 2, 1782.
Jacques was the son of Jacques Jules Gabriel, and assisted his father in many undertakings. At the death of his father in 1742 he succeeded him as premier architecte of Louis XV, and continued and completed many of the buildings begun by him. In 1745 he was made inspecteur général des bâtiments royaux. In 1751 he made the plans for the buildings of the École Militaire, Paris, which was built mainly by Alexandre Brongniart between 1752 and 1787. In 1752 he took part in the famous concours for the creation of the Place Louis XV, now Place de la Concorde, Paris. His plans were accepted in 1753. Work was begun in 1754 and the Place was opened in 1763. The Colonnades in the Rue Royale were not completed until 1772. Between 1753 and 1774 Gabriel rebuilt the central pavilion, the right wing and Salle de Spectacle, of the Palace of Versailles. Between 1762 and 1768 he built the Petit Trianon in the gardens of Versailles. In 1755 he was intrusted with the restoration of the Louvre, principally the eastern portion with the colonnade designed by Claude Perrault. This part of the palace had never been roofed over and was much injured. About the same time he rebuilt the château of Compiègne.
Nicolas Henri Jardin
architect; b. March 22, 1720; d. August 31, 1799.
In 1742 Jardin won the Grand Prix de Rome in architecture. In 1754 he was called to Denmark by King Frederick V, and was made professor of architecture at the Academy of Copenhagen. In that city he continued the royal church (a domical building in marble), which was begun by the architect Eigtved in 1749. He completed only the lower story and the eastern portal. After lying unfinished one hundred years its completion, in modified form, was undertaken about 1875 by the architect Meldahl.
architect; b. about 1721; d. June 3, 1804.
He visited Rome in 1742 and met James Stuart (below), with whom he went to Athens in 1750. He was associated with Stuart in the preparation of the Antiquities of Athens, 4 vols. folio, 1762-1816. He also prepared the drawings of Parts I and II of the Antiquities of Ionia (1769-1797, folio) published by the Society of Dilettanti. He designed and decorated various residences in England.
James Stuart, F. R. S., F. S. A.
painter and architect; b. 1713; d. February, 1788.
He studied painting, and in 1742 visited Italy. His De Obelisco Cæsaris Angusti was published at the expense of Pope Benedict XIV (1 vol. folio, 1750). January, 1751, with Nicholas Revett (above) and W. Pars, a painter, he visited Greece and made a careful examination and measurements of the ruins at Athens. He returned to England in 1752. The first volume of Stuart and Revett's monumental Antiquities of Athens (folio) was published in 1762, the second in 1788 (the year of his death), the third, edited by W. Reveley, appeared in 1794, and the fourth, edited by J. Woods, in 1816. A supplementary volume, Antiquities of Athens and Other Places in Greece, Sicily, etc., was published by C. R. Cockerell, W. Kinnard, T. L. Donaldson, and W. Railton (1830). From 1758 until his death Stuart held the office of surveyor at Greenwich Hospital.
architect, and writer on architecture; b. 1705 (at Venice); d. 1789.
The son of an architect, a nephew of G. Scalfarotti, and a pupil of Niccolò Comini and the Marquis Poleni. In 1726 he entered the commission of engineers at Venice, of which he became chief in 1742. Among the few buildings constructed by him are the church of S. Maria Maddalena in Venice, the façade of Margherita. at Padua, and the Rotondo of Piazzolo. He is best known by his books : Dell' Antichita di Rimino, libri due, traccolta di Antichi inscrizioni (Venice, 1741); Dissertazione sopra l'antichissimo territorio di Sant' Mario nella diocesi d' Oliveto (Venice, 1701, folio); Vite de' più celebri architetti e scultori Veneziani che fiorirono nel secolo decimosesto (Venice, 1778, folio); Antica pianta del indita città di Venezia delinéala circa la meta del XII. secolo, etc. (Venice, 1781, 4to). The Degli Archi e delle volte, etc., was not published until 1811. Temanza's Vite is one of the most important books of its class.