1499.10.06 capture of Milan by Louis XII
Nicolas (Colin) Biard (Biart)
the Collin Byart of the Comptes; architect and builder (maître-maçon); b. 1460 (at Amboise, Indre et Loire, France).
Biard is said to have directed the construction of the château of Amboise, France, after March 3, 1499. In association with Jean de Doyac, Didier de Felin, and André de Saint Martin, he worked on the Pont Notre Dame, Paris, begun March 28, 1499. Soon after this he was charged by Louis XII with the erection of that part of the château of Blois which was built during his reign. While occupied with this building he was invited, in 1504, by the Cardinal Georges d'Amboise, the minister of Louis XII, to inspect the works at the château of Gaillon near Rouen. He visited Gaillon in 1505 and 1506, and seems to have been a general inspector, or supervisor, of the constructions there. December 14, 1506, he was called to Rouen to advise concerning the completion of the Tour de Beurre at the cathedral. December 4, 1507, he was consulted concerning the dangerous condition of the tower of the cathedral of Bourges which fell December 31. He began the reconstruction of this tower October 19, 1508.
Raffaello Santi (Sancttos, Sanzio); called Raphael
painter and architect ; b. March 26 (or 28), 1483; d. April 6, 1520.
Raphael was born at Urbiuo (Italy), the son of Giovanni Santi, a painter. About 1499 he entered the atelier of Perugino, at Perugia, and probably assisted in the decoration of the Cambio at Perugia, which was done at this time. According to Vasari, he also assisted Pinturicchio in decorating the library at Siena, begun in 1502. He visited Florence in 1504, and spent much time in that city until 1509. Raphael was called to Rome by Julius II (Pope 1503- 1513) in 1509, to assist in the decoration in fresco of a suite of apartments (stanza) in the Vatican already begun by Sodoma, Perugiuo, and others. The first stanza was finished in 1511. The second stanza was painted between 1511 and 1514; much of the execution was deputed to his assistants. The third stanza, still less the work of Raphael, was finished about 1517 by Giulio Romano. The decorations of the loggie of the Vatican were begun in 1517. In 1514 he painted at the Villa Farnesina (Rome) the fresco of "Galatea," and later made the designs for the "Marriage of Cupid and Psyche." The splendid sibyls in the Chigi chapel at the church of S. Maria della Pace (Rome) were painted at about the same time as the "Galatea." When Bramante died (March 11, 1514), Raphael succeeded him as architect of S. Peter's; with him were associated Fra Giocondo and others. Raphael's principal innovation was to substitute a Latin for the Greek cross of Bramante. His reputation as architect rests mainly upon obscure statements by Vasari. He may have designed those portions of the Villa Madama (Rome) which were built before 1520, although existing measured drawings for that building are by Antonio (II) and Battista da San Gallo. The Pandolfini palace (Florence) is ascribed to Raphael, but was begun after his death. The Farnesina villa was undoubtedly the work of Baldassare Peruzzi. Raphael may have designed the Chigi chapel at the church of S. Maria del Popolo and the palace of Giovanni Battista dell' Aquila (Rome), which has disappeared.
By a brief dated August 27, 1515, of Leo X. (Pope, 1513-1521) Raphael was authorized to inspect and purchase all marbles in the ruins within ten miles of Rome. This enabled him to institute an extensive series of important excavations. He began a work on the topography of Rome, the text of which, by Andreas Fulvius, was published in 1527. The plates were never completed.